In regards to GPS,I have my own physical paper maps which I want to scan and use with GPS software. I dont want to be reliant on the internet because I dont need to be and when using these maps off road / ocean there is no internet reception.
I reviewed several different software packages on my android phone.
I settled on Custom Maps. Although its 99% internet free, you still calibrate the maps using google maps. After that point, it does not use the internet at all.
Its pretty awesome, you can use scanned maps. During the weekend I went sightseeing, at one of the sites there had a map on the board which I took a photo of. A few minutes later I had the map calibrated and working perfectly.
Using these maps are the best, because they also contain tourist information which GPS software does not.